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SUMMARY This article examines Ireland’s relative position within the UK industrial sector in the early twentieth century, by critically evaluating the Irish component of the First UK Census of Production. Firstly, Ireland’s employment, net output shares, and net output per person are compared to the UK results. Secondly, by supplementing and adjusting the census evidence, a new estimate of the size of the industrial workforce is constructed, which is then used to produce a new estimate of Irish industrial output. From this it is possible to estimate the contribution of industry to Irish GDP, which can then be compared to its contribution in other European economies.